Do you know the history of cloud computing and the trends that shaped it? The timelines are from my book the Great Cloud Migration and show all the key events in the history of cloud computing. Understanding the history is important to understanding the major influencing factors and forces that shape the current landscape.
Here is a summary of the events:
* 1961 – Professor John McCarthy propose computing be organized as a “public utility”.
* 1964 – IBM CP-40 Operating Systems uses Virtualization
* 1972 – IBM VM/370 is a virtual machine operating system
* 1991 – The World Wide Web popularizes the internet
* 1997 – First use of the term “Cloud Computing”
* 1999 – Salesforce.com and VMWare launch
* 2002 – Amazon Web Services (AWS) launches and SOA emerges
* 2003 – Seminal Google File System (GFS) paper published
* 2005 – Google Maps is a watershed event for browser-based apps (introduces AJAX).
* 2006 – Hadoop launched, shortly followed by Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2
* 2008 – Google App Engine launches
* 2009 – Microsoft Azure launches
* 2010 – GSA’s apps.gov launches (and federal Cloud-first policy).
The Future of Cloud Computing
Several interesting articles over the last month on the Rise of Robots and their intersection with Cloud Computing. An article on Google’s Ray Kurzweil about AI (Smart Data burst in the diagram above). Several articles (here and here) and open source project on software that connects robots to the cloud or the “World Wide Web for Robots”. This relates to both the Cloud Agents and Robot Assistant bubbles in the diagram above. Robots are a great use case for the cloud because of their need for immediate situational awareness (especially with use cases like driving cars and auto-piloted drones).
In the Great Cloud Migration (Pg 191), I discuss Robotic assistants:
- “Robot assistants – combining both intelligent agents and sensors into packages that manipulate our physical world brings us to the rise of robots. Because they interact with the physical world, robotic assistants like driverless cars, drones, humanoid servant robots and numerous types of worker bots will all require a very high-level of precision to ensure reliability, safety and competence. Precision requires collaboration with sensors, smart data for context and reasoning. Even more impressive than precision will be the ability for robots to learn and respond to novel situations by tapping into the unlimited capacity of the future cloud. Machine learning in the cloud could enable these robotic assistants to move beyond routine instructions when necessary.”
Me covering the highlights of the Great Cloud Migration to a packed house at the InCadence Book Launch party! it was a truly awesome night! Great to see some many old friends and colleagues. Special thanks to InCadence for hosting the event!
My Latest Article comparing Hadoop and Data Warehousing is Popular
This article answers the question: “Is Hadoop the death of data warehousing?”
Getting very good feedback so far on the article… Enjoy!
Netflix creating the “Movie Genome” and we love it!
The Atlantic has an excellent article on how Netflix leverages a “micro-categorization” strategy with over 76,897 micro-genres! This is a superb example of how to use the metadata technique of categorization (or the creating of taxonomies) to organize a body of information. Of course, the library system (with the Dewey Decimal system) and Museums (with curation of collection metadata) have been using this very same technique for years but with less fanfare and never to this level of granularity. I go into detail in my book, Information As Product, about this metadata technique.
Finally, this technique is similar to how well Pandora and other music recommendation sites leverage metadata to create the “music genome”. Netflix is taking movie metadata to that same level to enable fine-grained recommendations of what type of movies you like. My Netflix categories show movies under these types:
- Military Action & Adventure
- Psychological Mysteries
- Gritty Dramas
My son has even more interesting categories like: “Exciting East Asian TV Shows”.
This excellent use of categorization is not only good information management, it is good business. This helps Netflix not only determining what you may like to watch but it also helps determine what type of movies are popular so Netflix can target original content in those categories (this is how it was so confident that their original series “House of Cards” would be so popular). Leveraging Cloud Computing, Big Data and “Big Metadata” is why Netflix continues to lead in the entertainment market!
Ars Technica today reported a hypervisor hack for the site openSSL.org which was defaced. Originally, the confusion was the fault of the openSSL folks who reported the hypervisor as the cause of the defacement. The openSSL have now updated their report to state that poor password security allowed a hacker to access the hypervisor management console of their service provider which then led to the vulnerability and the defacement.
Why is this relevant? It shows the level of nervousness around the concept of hypervisor security. A hypervisor is the software that enables you to run multiple virtual machines on a single server. It was good to see VMWare be so pro-active in addressing this potential vulnerability and quickly working with OpenSSL to get to the bottom of the hack.
Cloud security is still at the top of everyone’s list of adoption roadblocks and therefore the community must be vigilant and pro-active in addressing any potential threats!
After discovering what I considered to be too many grammatical and typographic errors, I temporarily pulled the book to revise it. I had two people copyedit the book with a fine tooth comb (and I read it again out loud to catch errors). It is interesting to note that all three of us caught different errors … shows how easy it is for errors to slip through the cracks.
I am happy to announce the Kindle version is re-released and now available here. The print version will be available again in the very near future (new version is with the publisher). This was a tedious (and sometimes frustrating process); however, it was worth it to produce a high-quality book. That is the most important thing.